Low-J CO Line Ratios from Single-dish CO Mapping Surveys and PHANGS-ALMA
學年 110
學期 2
出版(發表)日期 2022-03-10
作品名稱 Low-J CO Line Ratios from Single-dish CO Mapping Surveys and PHANGS-ALMA
著者 Adam K. Leroy; Erik Rosolowsky; Antonio Usero; Karin Sandstrom; Eva Schinnerer; Andreas Schruba; Alberto D. Bolatto; Jiayi Sun; Ashley. T. Barnes; Francesco Belfiore; Frank Bigiel; Jakob S. den Brok; Yixian Cao; I. -Da Chiang; Mélanie Chevance; Daniel A. Dale; Cosima Eibensteiner; Christopher M. Faesi; Simon C. O. Glover; Annie Hughes; María J. Jiménez Donaire; Ralf S. Klessen; Eric W. Koch; J. M. Diederik Kruijssen; Daizhong Liu; Sharon E. Meidt; Hsi-An Pan; Jérôme Pety; Johannes Puschnig; Miguel Querejeta; Toshiki Saito; Amy Sardone; Elizabeth J. Watkins; Axel Weiss; and Thomas G. Williams
著錄名稱、卷期、頁數 The Astrophysical Journal 927(2), p.28
摘要 We measure the low-J CO line ratios R21 ≡ CO (2–1)/CO (1–0), R32 ≡ CO (3–2)/CO (2–1), and R31 ≡CO (3–2)/CO (1–0) using whole-disk CO maps of nearby galaxies. We draw CO (2–1) from PHANGS-ALMA, HERACLES, and follow-up IRAM surveys; CO (1–0) from COMING and the Nobeyama CO Atlas of Nearby Spiral Galaxies; and CO (3–2) from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxy Legacy Survey and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Large APEX Sub-Millimetre Array mapping. All together, this yields 76, 47, and 29 maps of R21, R32, and R31 at 20'' ∼ 1.3 kpc resolution, covering 43, 34, and 20 galaxies. Disk galaxies with high stellar mass, $\mathrm{log}({M}_{\star }/{M}_{\odot })=10.25\mbox{--}11$, and star formation rate (SFR) = 1–5 M⊙ yr−1, dominate the sample. We find galaxy-integrated mean values and a 16%–84% range of R21 = 0.65 (0.50–0.83), R32 = 0.50 (0.23–0.59), and R31 = 0.31 (0.20–0.42). We identify weak trends relating galaxy-integrated line ratios to properties expected to correlate with excitation, including SFR/M⋆ and SFR/LCO. Within galaxies, we measure central enhancements with respect to the galaxy-averaged value of ∼${0.18}_{-0.14}^{+0.09}$ dex for R21, ${0.27}_{-0.15}^{+0.13}$ dex for R31, and ${0.08}_{-0.09}^{+0.11}$ dex for R32. All three line ratios anticorrelate with galactocentric radius and positively correlate with the local SFR surface density and specific SFR, and we provide approximate fits to these relations. The observed ratios can be reasonably reproduced by models with low temperature, moderate opacity, and moderate densities, in good agreement with expectations for the cold interstellar medium. Because the line ratios are expected to anticorrelate with the CO (1–0)-to-H2 conversion factor, ${\alpha }_{\mathrm{CO}}^{1-0}$, these results have general implications for the interpretation of CO emission from galaxies.
語言 en_US
ISSN 1538-4357
期刊性質 國外
收錄於 SCI
國別 USA
出版型式 ,電子版