||Following continual disputes in Cross-Strait relations in the past 60 years, questions regarding the development of businesses in Taiwan and China remain unanswered: How do national and organizational cultures interact in these businesses? How do such interactions affect employee behavior, such as work performance? Do the differences in culture complement or undermine the businesses? Or do national and organizational cultures not interact with each other? If we categorize employees according to their backgrounds—such as the social background of their place of birth—how will such interactions be affected by the interaction among four entities, namely Taiwanese residents, Chinese residents, Taiwanese companies, and Chinese companies?
Person–organization fit is a variable that provides critical insights because it varies across employees and potentially moderates the interacting relationship between national and organizational cultures. Accordingly, this study adopted person–organization fit as a research variable to expediate the comprehensive observation and understanding of factors affecting work performance.
Employees in Taiwanese and Chinese companies no matter are located in Taiwan and China were recruited through purposive sampling as the research participants, to whom a questionnaire survey was administered to explore the aforementioned questions. Statistical analyses on valid responses from the participants revealed significant differences between several dimensions of national and organizational cultures but also high correlations between other dimensions. Examining the four entities in pairs also revealed significant differences with regard to cultural issues and to their effects on work performance.
Regarding the relationship between culture and work performance, team culture and adhocracy culture significantly and positively affected task performance. Hierarchy culture significantly and negatively affected task performance. Adhocracy culture exerted a significant and positive effect on contextual performance. In terms of person–organization fit, supplementary fit significantly and positively affected task performance; person–organization fit partially moderated the relationships of national and organizational cultures with work performance. Finally, managerial implications and recommendations for future research were proposed according to the study findings.