|標題：Impact of Copper-containing Effluent on Irrigation Water Quality in Taiwan|
|作品名稱||Impact of Copper-containing Effluent on Irrigation Water Quality in Taiwan|
|著者||SHENG WEI WANG; CHIHHAO FAN|
|著錄名稱、卷期、頁數||Taiwan Water Conservancy 69(1), p.42-55|
|摘要||Heavy metal contamination of paddy fields mostly results from the introduction of polluted irrigation water and the discharge of industrial wastewater into irrigation channels has been observed as a major cause for the deterioration of irrigation water quality. The printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing is an important industry for Taiwanese economic growth since the 1970s. Treated wastewater is permitted discharge to an irrigation channel. However, low copper (Cu) concentration may accumulate in the downstream irrigation channels, sediment, and paddy fields by introducing Cu-containing irrigation water. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of discharge effluent Cu on irrigation water quality. According to historical water quality monitoring data, electric conductivity (EC), suspended solids (SS), Chloride (Cl), sulfate (SO42-), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), sodium (Na), and Cu concentrations significantly increased due to the discharge of PCB processing wastewater. Stepwise regression analysis was applied and showed that EC could be regarded as an indicator of PCB-effected irrigation water. To assess the distribution of Cu, the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was employed to simulate Cu transport in irrigation channels. Two wastewater discharges containing 1,392.1 and 17,870 kg/day of Cu increased downstream Cu concentration above the irrigation water quality standard, supporting a hypothesis that 86.08 hectares of agricultural paddy fields were contaminated by Cu. Improvement in the wastewater treatment efficiency and/or ocean outfall construction are the possible options to reduce Cu contamination in the paddy fields. Besides, the establishment of an early-warning system regarding irrigation water quality irregularity using a real-time sensor, such as indicator EC could be helpful to achieve sustainable agricultural water resource development.
|關鍵字||Copper;Water quality;Printed circuit board manufacturing;Agricultural irrigation;銅;水質;印刷電路板製造業;農業灌溉|