教師資料查詢 | 類別: 研究報告 | 教師: 艾德榮 Ronald Alan Edwards (瀏覽個人網頁)

標題:唐宋經濟史
學年97
學期1
出版(發表)日期2009/01/01
作品名稱唐宋經濟史
作品名稱(其他語言)Tang-Song Economic History
著者艾德榮
單位淡江大學經濟學系
描述計畫編號NSC98-2410-H032-029;研究期間200908~201007;研究經費665,000
委託單位行政院國家科學委員會
摘要西元450 至750 年間,中國是一個自給自足的農業經濟體,有相對穩定不變的每人 GDP 與人口,以及幾無大改變的政治制度。但是在西元755 至763 年間的內戰(安史之 亂)開啟了一個轉變期。整個中國開始出現地方商業市場,並且發展與互相連結,在一 些案例中,甚至發展出全國市場,商業與工業出現前所未有的規模並且技術創新的腳步 更快了。這些發展在西元1000 至1300 年這段期間,持續且加速進行。在這段期間中, 每人GDP 與人口大約成長為兩倍,中國成為世界的技術領導者。而這,引發了政治經濟 上一個重要的問題:「是什麼原因造成了宋代中國早期的經濟成長?」 要嚴謹地研究這個問題,需要一個多年期研究計劃的資助。先前申請人曾獲得國科 會一年計劃補助(NSC 96-2415-H-032-007),資助本人研究安史之亂(755–763)後的 政治制度改革。在安史之亂後,整個中國對地方節度使在政治上的接受,造成了中國社 會權力結構的改變。我認為這個變化,改變了財產權制度,保護商業與工業利益,進而 導致中國早期的經濟成長。這個中國制度改變的發現,對前述問題的研究是一個很好的 開始,使得後續的研究很有希望與潛力。此多年期研究計劃,要對西元750 至1000 年 間中國之地方制度,做一廣泛之歷史與經濟研究。計劃案之第一部分已受補助(含一位 熟稔日文之專任研究助理),希望此次申請能獲通過以繼續第二部份之研究,而此部份 亦需要一位專任研究助理。 在第二年,我計劃研究中國唐宋時代之經濟史。從二次大戰以來,已有許多社會歷 史學家做了很多中國唐宋時代的相關研究。然而,這些研究當中很少有從經濟發展的觀 點來探討這段時期中的改變。針對這段時期中的改變,我特別計畫研究其科學的進步(包 括數學、天文學和自然科學)、農業發展(大小麥、占城稻和農業技術)、工業進展(包 含鐵、煤、銅、鉛等)、以及城市化與人口成長。簡而言之,我計劃以宋代各層面之進 步例證來論證宋代的經濟成長。值得注意的是,大部份社會歷史學家、馬克斯主義學者 的既有相關研究,其出發動機主要是基於對歷史分期(periodization)議題所抱持的興趣, 和經濟學家從生產力改變的角度來進行研究有很大的差異。 在此必須提及有關這些議題的研究文獻,多為日文,由於我無法閱讀日文,因此本 計劃需要有嫻熟日語之研究助理協助。因為民間日語補習班之薪水為國科會兼任助理之 三倍,並且從事歷史研究需要投入數月努力以及指導訓練的固定成本後,研究助理方能 較具生產力,因此懇請賜予較特別之研究支持:一位全職之研究助理。如果沒有至少一 位全職研究助理之經費,將很難聘請到嫻熟日語之助理,若然將使此研究較難完成。 Between 450 A.D. and 750 A.D., China was characterized by a self-sufficient agrarian economy with constant per-capita GDP, relatively constant population, and political institutions that showed little fundamental change. A civil war from 755 –763 A.D. initiated a period of transition. Throughout China, local commercial markets appeared, developed and interconnected, even, in some cases, creating national markets. Commerce and industry appeared on an unprecedented scale and the pace of technological innovation increased. These developments continued and accelerated in the 1000 –1300 A.D. period, when per-capita GDP and population roughly doubled and China emerged as the world’s technological leader. This raises an important question: “What caused the onset of Song China’s early economic growth?” This research project will take a couple of years to complete. Previously NSC supported research on this question has identified and studied political institutional reforms after the An-Shi Rebellion (755 –763). After the An-Shi Rebellion, regional military governors were politically accepted throughout China, changing the power structure of Chinese society. My thesis is that this caused a change in the property right system, protecting commercial and industrial interests, which led to China’s early economic growth.The identification of this institutional change is an excellent beginning for research on this topic and offers much potential. The historical research of this multi-year project requires a comprehensive study of China’s regional institutions from 750 to 1000.The first part of this project was funded for a year and supported a full-time research assistant that could read Japanese. This year’s request is to continue the second part of this project, which also requires a full-time research assistant. In the second year I plan to study the economic history of the Tang-Song period. There has been a large amount of research on many topics of this era by social historians since the Second World War. However, very few if any systematic studies have been done that present the changes of this period from the perspective of economic development. In particular, I plan to study advances in science (including mathematics, astronomy and natural science), the development of agriculture (including wheat, double cropping rice and farming techniques), industry (including iron, coal, copper, lead), urbanization and population growth. In short, I plan to make the case for Song economic growth. Note that this must be done as a part of this project because most of the existing studies by social historians are not motivated to studying changes in productivity, although they touch on it. Rather, most Marxist scholars are interested in periodization issues that are very different than those economists study. Because much of the literature on these topics is in Japanese, which I can not read, I require the services of a research assistant with this ability. Because of other opportunities (在補習班教 日文), such an assistant commands a wage three times that of a typical part-time research assistant. In addition, no prior knowledge of history can be presumed. Each new topic and period will require a fixed cost of several months’ effort before a research assistant can become productive. For these reasons, I am requesting an extraordinary level of research support: one full-time research assistant. Note that without the support of at least one full-time research assistant, it will be difficult to obtain the services of an assistant who can read Japanese making the completion of this research project questionable.
關鍵字制度; 財產權; 政治經濟; 經濟史; 中國; Institutions; Property Rights; Political Economy; Economic History; China
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