教師資料查詢 | 類別: 研究報告 | 教師: 蔡振興 Tsai Chen-hsing (瀏覽個人網頁)

作品名稱(其他語言)Nature, Sustainability, and the Imagination of the Future
摘要在論文中,我將重建史耐德生態思想體系中最具思辯性的自然論述,指出史耐德的自然表達了二種主要涵義:(一)「道」,即歷史發展的動力;(二)自然/人性。前者的概念類似班雅民(Walter Benjamin)在〈歷史哲學論綱〉(Theses on the Philosophy of History)中的「駝背侏儒」或恩格斯(Frederick Engels)在《自然辯證法》(Dialectics of Nature)中所揭示的自然概念,同時它也與「道」、「法」和「表演」等主題互相聯結;後者則暗指「野性」、「自由」、「潛意識」、「空」和「無」等意義。因此,本論文一方面力圖提升並豐富生態論述的內容,將不同的學術領域納入生態論述的討論範圍,另一方面也期能將史耐德的生態觀與亞洲(尤其是中國和臺灣)之關係,做更適切地探討。 本文共分四部份:第一部份回應齊傑克(Slavoj Zizek)對「生態主義」(ecologism)的批評;第二部份檢驗史耐德的自然觀; 第三部份則運用「小客體」(objet a)的視角來分析史耐德的「道」;第四部份援用「真實層」(the real)的概念來詮釋史耐德的「自然」。綜合而言,史耐德的自然並非全然浪漫的,而是流動的,具有發展性的未來想像。 史耐德、禪佛與生態 透過史耐德對道教、佛教和禪宗的研究,我將重新挖掘史耐德的生態美學,進而探(生態)主體如何從色、空、心、相中求得頓悟與解脫,尤其是以道元禪師的作品(包括Moon in a Dewdrop: Writings of Zen Master D.gen,Enlightenment Unfolds: The Essential Teachings of Zen Master D.gen,Sh.b.genz.: Zen Essays by D.gen)為例,以及相關評論(包括Hakuun Yasutani的Flowers Fall: A Commentary on D.gen』s Genjokoan,Francis H. Cook 的Sounds of Valley Streams: Enlightenment in D.gen』s Zen)等,期能整理、歸納出史耐德作品的「禪佛生態美學」(Zen-Buddhist Eco-aesthetics)觀點。 史耐德與能源文學 史耐德表達他對「文明」和「能源」的看法:文明的發展須要仰賴石油,因為石油能產生能源,而且新能源的問世代表著新文明的來臨。對史耐德而言,「能源為永恆之悅」(Energy Is Eternal Delight)(Turtle Island 103),但石油的探勘、開採、提煉和過度使用,帶來人類始料未及的環境破壞。也就是說,石油雖是文明解藥,卻成了環境的毒藥。因此,本文試從史耐德早期的詩作,如〈T2油輪藍調〉(T-2 Tanker Blues) (Riprap 29) 和《山水無盡》(Mountains and Rivers without End)中的環境詩,如〈百萬年船〉(Boat of a Million Years)、〈覆被大地〉(Covers the Ground)等詩,皆對石油作為(唯一)能源提出質疑。〈峽谷鷦鷯〉(The Canyon Wren)一詩則表達人類為了追求能源而改變環境(如建造水壩),隱含著一種「環境歧視」(environmental racism)的心態,它不但會對生態造成無形的傷害,也會有「文化污染」的後遺症。〈洛城晚歌〉(Night Songs of the Los Angeles Basin)以及〈紐約岩床行〉(Walking the New York Bedrock)兩首詩則說明文化與自然共生的重要。另外〈市場〉(The Market)和〈四大變革〉(Four Changes)(Turtle Island)也表達史耐德對資本主義、文明、消費文化邏輯及能源的態度,有助於重新反思現代性的得與失。因此,本論文除了整理史耐德的「能源文學」之外,我也試圖討論能源如何對自然、人和文明的影響,進而尋求史耐德對永績發展的解決之道。 Gary Snyder and the Nature of Nature This paper aims at exploring the nature of nature in Snyder』s poetry and prose. While offering a critical genealogy of nature discourses (Thoreau, Emerson, modern American poets and contemporary green philosophers), I also try to relate Snyder』s concepts of nature to Asian philosophers (Lao Tzu, Chuang Tzu, Zen Buddhism, and Hinduism) with a view to encompassing a larger view of the re-presentation of nature on the nature of nature. More importantly, I will further Snyder』s concepts of nature so as to re-cast the Snyderian Nature as the Lacanian Real, with a special focus on the (environmental) ethics of the real. Gary Snyder, Zen-Buddhism and Ecology In his poetry, interviews, and essays, Snyder articulates his major concern with the importance of Zen-Buddhism and the influence he received from it. It is interesting to note that Snyder』s usual blend of various cultural materials, such as Native American mythological references, Chinese landscape paintings, Buddhist philosophy, Asian traditions (Japanese, Chinese, and Indian), distinguishes himself as a syncretist. In this paper, I will tease out the various threads of Buddhist philosophy with special reference to Zen-Buddhism and scrutinize the interrelationship between Snyder』s poetry and Dogen』s philosophical writings—Moon in a Dewdrop: Writings of Zen Master D.gen, Enlightenment Unfolds: The Essential Teachings of Zen Master D.gen, and Sh.b.genz.: Zen Essays by D.gen. On top of that, Hakuun Yasutani』s Flowers Fall: A Commentary on D.gen』s Genjokoan and Francis H. Cook』s Sounds of Valley Streams: Enlightenment in D.gen』s Zen will be discussed in depth so as to derive a Snyderian Zen-Buddhist Eco-aesthetics that helps develop a healthy relationship between human kind and other-kind. Gary Snyder and the Literature of Energy So much depend on energy that it becomes a timely metaphor of our time. Both human』s comfort of joy and civilization bank preponderantly on the use of oil/energy. Despite the fact that 「energy is an eternal delight,」 Gary Snyder nevertheless urges us to participate in an incoming energy revolution in part because excessive use energy is unhealthy and detrimental to the sustainability and continuing stability of the society as a whole and in part because it tends disrupt the symbiotic relationship between man and the environment. In this essay, I will trace Snyder』s ideas of and remarks on energy by looking at such poems as 「Boat of a Million Years,」 「Covers the Ground,」 「The Canyon Wren,」 「Night Songs of the Los Angeles Basin,」 and 「Walking the New York Bedrock,」 to name only a few, in order to explore their personal, social and environmental implications so that we can generate an ecological culture that is resistant to monopoly of power (and power grid).
關鍵字史耐德; 自然; ; 野性; 恩格斯; 《自然辯證法》; 齊傑克; 小客體; 真實層史耐德; 元禪師; 生態主體; 禪佛生態美學史耐德; 能源文學; 永續發展; 文化污染; 〈四大變革〉; 《山水無盡》; Gary Snyder; Nature; Tao; Dialectics of Nature; Slavoj Zizek; objet a; the realGary Snyder; D.gen Zenji; Zen-Buddhist Eco-aestheticsGary Snyder; the literature of energy; sustainability; cultural pollution;“Four Changes”; Mountains and Rivers witho
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