|作品名稱（其他語言）||The and Practice of Leisure among Late Ming Literati|
|著錄名稱、卷期、頁數||戶外遊息研究 4(3)，頁 35-63|
Literati in Late Ming often took a detached, cool approach to life, in response to the circumstances of the times. Instead, they settled their minds on mountain scenery, flowers and trees, and on the appreciation of art in order to seek freedom (both subjectively and in representing the outside world).
Thus the leisure culture developed by the late Ming literati was more of a choice of direction and acknowledgement of life's substance than a search for rest as such from a busy, oppressive life. Their ideal model was the easy life of the mountain peasant, but due to the pressures of objective circumstances slowly they took to escaping the limits of position in or outside the court by raising such ideas as the dark core of mind, heavenly wandering, and whether to take up office or not and instead take leisurely pleasure in both the organization of their home life and through the enjoyment of rural scenery.
The manner in which the late Ming literati approached mountain scenery in fact included three different Levds of appreciation: firstly, to feel satisfaction at the aesthetic forms of the objective world; secondly, to experience the interflow between mind and object; thirdly, to treasure the harmonious emotions of the journey (even if, when on occasion the form could not by attained, travel by dreamscould at a pinch take it's place).
As for the organization of home life, most would follow the prevailing causes and conditions of the time. If, on the other hand, by avoiding collusion with external conditions, one could attain an effect that could positively express the personal taste of the individual, then in the self-attainment of that nature or taste, whether by calligraphing, or paintings, playing the Chin or Chi, in meditation or in disputation, wining or drinking tea, he could achieve a fresh, unhurried aesthetic of life. In experiencing these activities, many literati took delight in espousing their ideas and impressions in essay form, using words to record the content of this type of life style. Thus reading itself also become one possible leisure pursuit at the same time as providing a recording of observation of other activities and experiences. It played the role of an epilogue or introduction, becoming an important representative of the whole leisure culture.
|關鍵字||天遊;三重情趣;臥遊;家居生活;休閒文化;hevenly wandering;levels of appreciation;organization of home life;travel by dreams;leisure culture|