教師資料查詢 | 類別: 期刊論文 | 教師: 曹淑娟 TSAO SHU-CHUAN (瀏覽個人網頁)

標題:晚明文人的休閒理念及其實踐
學年79
學期1
出版(發表)日期1991/01/01
作品名稱晚明文人的休閒理念及其實踐
作品名稱(其他語言)The and Practice of Leisure among Late Ming Literati
著者曹淑娟
單位淡江大學中國文學學系
出版者
著錄名稱、卷期、頁數戶外遊息研究 4(3)頁 35-63
摘要晚明文人對應於其時代環境,常採退離、冷淡的處世態度,而將意志情懷安頓向山水花木、藝文閒賞,以追尋主體的自由與境界的呈現。因而晚明文人所開展的休閒文化,與其說是爲忙碌枯燥的生活尋求休息點綴,毋寧說是一種人生方向的抉擇與生命內容的認取。其理想典型爲山居閒適的布衣,但往往客觀情勢有所不得,遂有以心冥境、天遊、史隱等觀念的提出,企圖擺脫朝野身份的限定,而俱得以通過山水雲煙之好尚與家居生活之安排,以取得悠閒的樂趣。晚明文人親近自然山川,實兼取三重情趣:一以觀賞山水景物之美感形相,再則體驗心物間的感應,三則珍惜同遊的和諧人情,縱使形囊有所不能至,臥遊方式亦堪取代。至於家居生活的安排,多隨順既有的情勢因緣,反而因不依賴外緣配合,而擁有較能開顯個人主體興味的積極效果,書畫琴棋、參禪論道、飲酒試茶,在自適其性中,成就從容潤澤的生活美感。在從事這些活動之際,許多文人並且樂於信從性靈文論的主張,以文字記載此類生活內容,於是,語文活動本身既作爲休閒內容之一,同時它又爲其他活動經驗作觀察記錄,扮演總結者或引導者的角色,成爲整體休閒文化中的重要代表成績。
Literati in Late Ming often took a detached, cool approach to life, in response to the circumstances of the times. Instead, they settled their minds on mountain scenery, flowers and trees, and on the appreciation of art in order to seek freedom (both subjectively and in representing the outside world).
Thus the leisure culture developed by the late Ming literati was more of a choice of direction and acknowledgement of life's substance than a search for rest as such from a busy, oppressive life. Their ideal model was the easy life of the mountain peasant, but due to the pressures of objective circumstances slowly they took to escaping the limits of position in or outside the court by raising such ideas as the dark core of mind, heavenly wandering, and whether to take up office or not and instead take leisurely pleasure in both the organization of their home life and through the enjoyment of rural scenery.
The manner in which the late Ming literati approached mountain scenery in fact included three different Levds of appreciation: firstly, to feel satisfaction at the aesthetic forms of the objective world; secondly, to experience the interflow between mind and object; thirdly, to treasure the harmonious emotions of the journey (even if, when on occasion the form could not by attained, travel by dreamscould at a pinch take it's place).
As for the organization of home life, most would follow the prevailing causes and conditions of the time. If, on the other hand, by avoiding collusion with external conditions, one could attain an effect that could positively express the personal taste of the individual, then in the self-attainment of that nature or taste, whether by calligraphing, or paintings, playing the Chin or Chi, in meditation or in disputation, wining or drinking tea, he could achieve a fresh, unhurried aesthetic of life. In experiencing these activities, many literati took delight in espousing their ideas and impressions in essay form, using words to record the content of this type of life style. Thus reading itself also become one possible leisure pursuit at the same time as providing a recording of observation of other activities and experiences. It played the role of an epilogue or introduction, becoming an important representative of the whole leisure culture.
關鍵字天遊;三重情趣;臥遊;家居生活;休閒文化;hevenly wandering;levels of appreciation;organization of home life;travel by dreams;leisure culture
語言中文
ISSN
期刊性質國內
收錄於
產學合作
通訊作者
審稿制度
國別中華民國
公開徵稿
出版型式,紙本
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