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121 85/2 資管系 蕭瑞祥 教授 會議論文 發佈 國際貿易訂價決策支援雛型系統之研究 , [85-2] 摘要:台灣的經濟體系是以進出口貿易為導向的開放經濟, 進出口貿易商在台灣的經濟市場上扮演了極為重要的角色。整個進出口貿易交易過程中, 訂價(Pricing)是極為重要但卻也極為複雜的決策活動。在進出口貿易活動中, 有相當多的因素影響了價格的訂定, 例如客戶信用、匯率變動、購買量等等。本研究的主要目的是建構一個支援貿易訂價決策之訂價支援系統(Pricing Support System; PSS)的雛型系統。 本研究透過文獻以及與貿易公司高階主管訪談, 彙總出六大類與期望利潤決策相關的因素, 並且將訂價目標、成本、及相關法令納入支援模式之考量。本研究之訂價支援系統運用決策支援系統與專家系統之理論架構, 構建期望利潤與訂價目標之知識庫及推理功能, 再加上親和力高的使用者介面, 構成完整的架構模式, 期望能為國際貿易訂價決策提供更理性、更合理之系統雛型。;The economic system in Taiwan here is opened and international trade-oriented. International trade companies play a significant role in Taiwan. Pricing is a very important and complicated decision activity in the process of trade, There are a lot of factors affect the price, such as customer's credit, exchange rate inflation, sales quantity, etc. The purpose of this research is to construct a prototype system of Pricing Support System (PSS) to support the pricing decision. Two results are conducted by the ways of archives research and interview. First, six categories factors related with expect profits are summarized in this paper. Second, PSS also consider about pricing object, cost, and legality to conduct the decision model. This research combines the theoretical framework of expert system and decision support system, with knowledge base and friendly user interface, to construct the prototype system and expect to support the pricing decision of international trade.
122 85/2 資管系 黃振中 副教授 會議論文 發佈 公元2000年軟體危機之實證研究-以國內銀行業資訊系統為例 , [85-2] 摘要:由於電腦系統內之日期儲存欄位長度不足及閏年計算公式可能有誤, 到了公元2000年部份資訊系統可能會產生處理上之錯誤, 甚至危及企業的後續營運。國內銀行業者仰賴資訊系統的程度甚深, 且其系統開發時間較早, 絕大多數業者系統開發的時間皆在此一危機被探討之前, 故應積極正視此一課題。 本文以國內149家銀行業者為研究對象, 參考了國內外相關文獻及專家之意見後建立了一個研究架構, 其內容包含危機認知、可行性分析及因應對策等三個構面, 並依此架構設計問卷郵寄各銀行業之資訊單位主管, 共回收了48份有效問卷。資料分析後發現, (l)多數高層決策主管及全部資訊單位主管對此一危機已具共識; (2)規模較大之舊商業銀行、中小企業銀行及新商業銀行其因應危機的態度最積極; (3)有關維修現有系統的資源需求方面, 資訊單位主管認為「人力不足」及「缺乏專業指導」等項目較需外力支援; (4)對於現有系統的原始程式碼及相關設計文件之保存工作大致完整; (5)主管對15項系統危機及營運衝擊的認知上大致還算樂觀, 比較擔心會影響帳務檔案正確性及營運交易順利進行之部份作業項目; (6)由統計檢定發現, 不同性質的業者對系統危機及營運衝擊等影響變數間不具相關性。;Due to the insufficient length of date-field and the possible calculation error of leap-year formula in information systems, parts of them will get troubles on data processing and even on company running at the beginning of the next century. Since the daily works of domestic banks heavily depend on their information system and the development date of those systems are earlier than the date of software crisis announcement, the relating chief executives of the banking industry must pay attention this issue. In this article, we first proposed a framework by literature reviews and expert opinions. The contents of this framework included some variables from crisis recognition, feasibility analyses and reaction strategies. Based on this framework, we designed a questionnaire to make a field survey on 149 banking CIOs. We got 48 valid samples and some findings, (1) Most CEOs and all CIOs realized this software crisis, (2) The bigger the organizational size was, the more aggressive attitudes of their strategies took, (3) Man-powers and professional consultants were two major needs to outsource when the legacy system must be modified, (4) Source codes and system design documentations of the legacy system were complete in general, (5) The most concerned crisis items were related to issues of validity of file updates and smooth running of branches, (6) There were no statistically significance between the variables of organizational size and crisis recognition.
123 85/2 資管系 黃振中 副教授 會議論文 發佈 銀行業採用主從架構意願之研究 , [85-2] 摘要:企業建立一個理想資訊系統架構已成為國外資訊主管最重視的一項課題[25]。在面臨資訊技術改變、市場競爭激烈及資訊系統老舊等諸多因素的衝擊下, 如何建構一個滿足安全性穩定性、即時性的系統需求架構, 也成為國內銀行業資訊主管應重視的課題。 本文以國內154家銀行業資訊單位主管為研究對象, 藉由文獻探討、專家訪談方式建構一個研究模型; 其內容以主從架構技術為核心, 探討結合此一架構後可能衍生的資訊系統架構、可行的作業項目、面臨的諸多阻礙因素、外力支援工作等課題; 並依此一內容進行郵寄問卷, 共回收65份有效問卷。由回收的資料分析中發現(1)國內銀行業者對主從架構之依賴程度不高:(2)認為管理分析性質的作業項目較適合於主從架構上處理:(3)普遍認為引進主從架構仍存有諸多阻礙:(4)認為較大的阻礙因素為技術整合、技術成熟度及廠商支援能力;最小的阻礙因素為資訊人員之學習能力及專業地位之衝擊:(5)組織型態不同與規畫主從架構意願之高低並不會影響其對阻礙因素的認同程度:(6)認為可以應用之作業項目愈多者其對阻礙因素之認同程度愈低:(7)大多數業者承認若欲引進主從架構則部份系統開發工作須仰賴外力支援。;How to build an ideal information system architecture becomes the most important issue of the chief information officer in the United States. Facing the technology innovation, the acute financial market competition, and the old-fashioned system architecture, it also become a hot issue for the local banking executive to set up a brand-new system with highly security, stability and agility. In this article, we first proposed a framework by literature reviews and expert opinions. The framework, focusing on the Client/Server (C/S) architecture, embraced four dimensions such as alternative IS architectures, feasible applications on the C/S platform, possible inhibitors for using the C/S system, and desirable tasks of outsourcing. Used this framework as a basis, we designed a questionnaire to conduct a field survey on 154 banking information executives. We got 65 valid samples and some findings: (1) Most EDP centers did not heavily rely on the C/S architecture; (2) The feasible applications of the C/S system could be classified as management analysis category;(3) The inhibition to use this new technology was high in general; (4) The results suggested that technological integration, immature of technology and lack of vendors supporting were the most important inhibitors, while learning capability of staffs and career impacts of DP personnel were least important ones; (5) There were no statistically significance between two sets of variables, one was organizational size vs. inhibitors, the other was C/S execution plan vs. inhibitors; (6) The more feasible applications on the C/S platform, the lower inhibitors of adoption; and (7) Some tasks of outsourcing were necessary when partial C/S systems were implemented.
124 83/2 資管系 黃振中 副教授 會議論文 發佈 資訊系統分析人員技能需求與培訓方式之實證研究 , [83-2] 摘要:由於企業競爭之日趨激烈,資訊科技(Information Techno1ogy) 逐漸成為其追求競爭優勢、達成永續生存的手段。此一趨勢使得資訊部門在組織內之角色也日趨重要。然而,資訊應用涵蓋之產業別層面甚廣;如何以有限教育資源培訓滿足各行各業需求的分析設計人才,將是學校教育的一項挑戰。男一方面,在資訊應用工真不斷推陳出新之際,很多從事相關行業的資管系畢業生,多認為學校教育和現實環境需求有脫節現象。企業界如何實施資訊人員之在職訓練,並和學校教育相互配合也將是未來企業主管應當深思的課題。本研究以資訊管理學系畢業生的主要就業目標_ í'資訊系統分析人員(System Ana1yst)之培訓教育為研究對象。一方面自文獻探索和專家訪談過程中,分析探討資訊管理教育之課程設計與分類,並彙整出系統分析人員應具備的27 項職業技能(Skills) 。另一方面,利用此一技能資料為基石設計出一套間卷,進行實証研究。研究對象包含系統分析人員之供給者(學校)、需求者(企業界)及受教者(系統分析人員本身)三大族群,以探討其對這些技能之認同度及差異性, 並有多項發現。;Due to the violently competitive business environment, some companies used information technology as their strategic weapons to get the competitive advantage for survival. Nowadays both the role of EDP center and the position of Information Management personnel in the organization become more important than those as before. Thus,how to use the limited university education resources to train qualified system analysts for urgent needs of diversified industries now becomes a tough challenge of the school.On the other hand, many graduate students of the Department of Information Management complained of ill-designed courses.Therefore,how to carry out the Information Technology on-job training as well as to link with the school education in the company will also be a hot issue of the executive.In this article, we will set up our research focus on the training avenue of the qualified system analyst ( SA ) --- one of the most important job position for the graduate students of Information Management Department.
 Before conducting an empirical resaerch, 27 professional skills needed by a qualified system analyst will be first determined from previous literatures and experts' oplfllons. Furthermore, a questionnaire taking those professional skills as the base, we made a survey on three related groups
 including the SA themselves, the school faculty ( the supplier) and the CIO of companies ( the demander) and got some findings from the response data.
125 84/2 資管系 吳錦波 副教授 會議論文 發佈 多媒體智慧型主管資訊系統之發展架構 , [84-2] 摘要:由於主管資訊系統(Executive Information Systems,EIS)以極具親和性的使用介面,提供主管們各種內外部的資料來源,使得EIS的開發與運用在產官各界中快速的成長。在其相關的研究領域中,整合多媒體與人工智慧一直是學術界所關切並探討的課題。且認為未來的EIS應與多媒體與人工智慧結合,以達到更有效的資訊處理並提供給主管一個更友善的使用者界面。 本文經由個案系統雛型的開發,整合多媒體、專家系統、與主管資訊系統的概念,提出了多媒體智慧型主管資訊系統(Multimedia Intelligent Executive Information System,MIEIS)的整體發展架構。經由專家系統內所存的領域知識與推理能力,主管可以獲得系統智慧型的輔助,而以多媒體為資料展示界面,更可吸引主管,加強其使用意願。此外,文中亦將描述系統開發之結果,以期提供給對多媒體智慧型主管資訊系統有興趣的研究者與組織一個參考。;Executive Information Systems (EIS) allow executives to access internal and external data by a user-friendly interface. The utilization of EIS is growing rapidly in the industrial, business, and governmental organizations. Of all the various EIS research, the potential for integration of multimedia, artificial intelligence (AI) and EIS is noticed and discussed by the academic circles. It is believed that the successful Executive Information Systems of the future will be built around AI and multimedia components, so that more efficient and effective information processing and better user interface for executives can be achieved. This research investigates the concepts of multimedia, Expert Systems (ES), and EIS to establish a framework for developing multimedia intelligent executive information systems. A MIEIS architecture is proposed. The architecture contains components of EIS database, model base, knowledge base, multimedia interface, and MIEIS engine. The inference capability and domain knowledge of ES can provide intelligent assistance to the managers. The rich representations of multimedia user interface are able to attract executives to use the systems. Furthermore, the results of system development are also discussed and outlined to guide the researchers and designers who are interested in developing multimedia executive intelligent information systems.
126 84/1 資管系 吳錦波 副教授 會議論文 發佈 專家系統發展方法與傳統資訊系統發展方法之比較研究 , [84-1] 摘要:The purpose of this study is to compare the development methodologies of traditional information systems with those of expert systems. This research first surveyed the development methodologies for traditional information systems and expert systems, then their similarities and dissimilarities are compared and outlined. The research results show that both systems apply life- cycle concept in the system development process, however, each process might not possess the same details. The prototyping approach to traditional information systems is remarkably different from that to expert systems, in terms of orientation to final products and design goals. The structured analysis and design, the most used methodology in developing traditional information systems, is not applicable in expert systems, since the expert systems requiring knowledge representation are totally dissimilar to the descriptions of traditional information systems. In automating the development process, both CASE tools and expert systems building tools provide better environments to accelerate the development of traditional information systems and expert systems. In object-oriented approach, there are several object-oriented methodologies proposed for traditional information systems, but there are none for developing expert systems. Finally, unlike end-user computing phenomenon spreads in organizations, few end- users develop their own expert systems for applications independently.;本研究的目的在於比較傳統資訊系統與專家系統兩者的發展方法論。文章首先探討了傳統資訊系統與專家系統的發展方式,然後比較並陳述兩者的異同點。研究結果顯示,兩者在系統發展時都應用了生命週期的觀念,但在細節處仍有所不同。在雛型法方面,專家系統與傳統資訊系統在開發上使用雛型的目的與產品化程度有很大的差別。在目前廣為使用的結構化分析設計法方面,由於專家系統開發時的重點為知識表示,與傳統資訊系統的開發重點系統描述差異甚大,故結構化工具並不適用於專家系統的發展上。在自動開發法觀點方面,目前專家系統工具與電腦輔助軟體工程工具都已提供給系統發展者一個較佳的環境,使得系統的開發可以更加迅速且更有效率。在物件導向觀點方面:傳統資訊系統發展已有數個物件導向方法論可供支援,但在專家系統的開發,尚無一完整的物件導向方法論,而雖然使用者自建系統在組織中已蔚為風尚,但專家系統的發展則較少有使用者獨立自建方式。
127 85/2 資管系 黃明達 教授 會議論文 發佈 多媒體CAI發展環境的探討-15個個案綜合研究 , [85-2] 摘要:本研究使用個案研究法, 先對電腦輔助教學軟體的發展流程、工具、檔案格式與媒體來源進行文獻上之探討, 接著與國內業界中具有實際開發經驗的專家, 針對不同個案進行深度訪談, 以研究電腦輔助教學軟體之發展現況、開發經驗、常遭遇的問題及解決方法。業界與有意開發者如參考本研究彙總之經驗法則來開發其作品, 應可達到提昇產品品質、縮短開發時程與降低成本的目標。;This study uses case study methodology. To investigate the developing processes, tools, media formats and sources of the multimedia CAT, we in-depth interviewed with 16 industrial CAT experts, to study the recent developing environments, experiences, problems and solutions. Based on the conclusions of this study, industrialists and new developers can improve the quality, shorten the time and save the cost of their products.
128 84/2 資管系 黃明達 教授 會議論文 發佈 系務主管資訊系統之研究 , [84-2] 摘要:本研究乃以 淡江大學 資訊管理學系之系務 MIS資料庫為基礎,採雛型方法建構EIS雛型,且訪談 淡江大學 系所主管及資管系所教授,並問卷調查,以進一步瞭解系所主管及一般專家,對EIS的資訊需求與看法,做為後續發展與修改EIS雛型之參考。在開發過程中發現:主管資訊需求需有主管參與界定,無法替代。EIS發展需相容於現有系統,以增進資訊的及時流通與運用。資料萃取功能系統,乃EIS資料來源重要管道。 由問卷分析得知,主管與專家受訪者均喜好圖表資訊呈現方式、滑鼠輸入方式,及較重視學生、教師、課程等資訊,且均著重於系務資訊、學術簡訊、院務資訊等資訊需求;而專家對電子郵件,有較顯著的需求。對於系務資料的來源與滿意的系統特性,則有顯著的需求差異;主管滿意的特性是資訊即時性、系統提供功能,而專家滿意的是使用者親和性、資訊呈現方式。主管喜好圖表資訊呈現方式,則顯著影響其發展EIS的意願。 主管資訊來源對滿意的系統特性之分析顯示:主管之助理資訊來源,較不具資訊及時性、資訊提供程度、系統提供功能、及使用親和性等特性。而電腦螢幕資訊來源,適合資訊呈現設計,及具使用者親和性之特性。傳統報表資訊來源,提供資訊及時性,及資訊整體品質能力不足。會議型態資訊來源,則尚未有適當的系統特性可替代。;This research is based on the MIS database of the Department of Information Management of Tamkang University, and prototyping approach is used to establish the EIS prototype. Interviews with executives of departments and institutes and professors of the Department of Information Management have been made and questionnaire survey has been conducted to further understand the opinion and information requirement for EIS, and make reference for the continuing development and modification of the EIS prototype. In the course of development, the defining of the executive information requirement requires the participation of executives, and it is irreplaceable. The development of EIS should be compatible with all existing systems, to facilitate the intime popularity and application of information. The data extractor system will be the important channel of information source of EIS. From the questionnaire survey, we discover that both executive and expert respondents prefer graphical and tabular display of information and mouse input mode and pay more attention to information about students, teachers and curricula, their demand focus more on information about departmental, academic and college matters, while experts are more interested in the E-mail function. In the information source of departmental matters and satisfactory system features, a distinct difference in information requirement has been found between executives and experts. The satisfactory feature of executives is the intime of information and system functions, while experts are more interested in the user friendly and information display. Executives' preference in graphical and tabular display of information will obviously affected their willingness to develop the EIS. The analysis of the influences of executive information source on satisfactory system features indicates that the information source of executives' assistants is less informational and intime and the requirement for information, system functions and user friendly supplies is also lesser; the monitor source satisfies the design of information display and contains friendly user features; the traditional report information source provides information and timeliness, but the integral quality ability of information is insufficient; and there is no suitable system feature can replace the conference information source.
129 80/1 決策系 楊維楨 教授 會議論文 發佈 電腦輔助問卷設計之一研究 , [80-1] 摘要:本研究從人機系統的觀點,針對使用者的需 求,了解在設計消費者問卷時所需考慮到之因素 ,並整理出必須注意到之原則。藉由消費者行為 模式,專家共識及電腦輔助設計之觀念將此規則 予以程式化,以協助研究人員在設計問卷時能作更詳盡與廣泛的考量,並增進其設計的效率。;The main purpose of the study is trying to reduce the time and cost needed to develop a questionnaire by the aid of the computer, using a semi-structure design procedure to decrease the possibility of mistakes made by human, and elevating the value of information derived from questionnaire interviews. In the implementation of the system, the special character of it is to include the consumer behavior model, a very attractive concept in marketing research. By the help of the model, the designer of a questionnaire will easily understand the goal for the questionnaire and the direction of the research. The quality and design speed of a questionnaire will be elevated by the search in database and the implantation of designer's subjective opinions. In the future, the system is expected to connect with other marketing software to improve the automation degree of marketing research.
130 92/1 決策系 時序時 教授 會議論文 發佈 一整合型二維品質機能展開模式之建立與驗證 , [92-1] 摘要:本文探討利用群體決策(Group decision making)技術與二維品質模式( Two-dimension model of quality; Kano model)的概念整合於品質機能展開( Quality function deployment; QFD)中;以提升決策品質;並據以建構一整合型品質機能展開模式;再應用於台北故宮博物院的服務品質評估上。鑑於以往品質機能展開的輸入;多仰賴問卷調查方式;以掌握顧客聲音(Voice of the customer;VOC)。但是對於新產品或服務之規劃;則因無歷史資料可依循;問卷調查將難期反應實況。為降低以上困擾;本文藉由專家小組提供專業意見;並結合二維品質概念;以有效掌握品質要素、特性與權重;俾利品質機能展開之進行。其次;有關專家們意見之溝通與彙整;將藉名義群體技術(Nominal group technique)程序與投票(Voting)機制協助。另在整合過程中群體意見之分歧與改進;依Negwenyama et al.(1996)建議的相關共識指標(Consensus indices)進行檢驗並協助改善;並經驗證可行。
131 87/2 會計系 蔡信夫 教授 會議論文 發佈 美國同業評鑑模式在台灣會計師業實施之研究 , [87-2] 摘要:可靠的資訊乃是當今社會所不可或缺的。然而, 資訊提供者之目標與資訊使用者之目標相反, 因此社會上確實需要超然獨立的查核人員, 以判斷吾人所信賴的資訊是否允當而完整表達實際發生的狀況。近年來, 台灣證券市場發展迅速, 企業規模大型化、國際化, 會計師的角色日益重要, 因此會計師事務所應建立適當的品質控制政策和程序,以確保每一次查核契約均遵循一般公認審計準則。而同業評鑑係對事務所品質控制政策做適當性研究, 並測試該政策以決定事務所遵循這些政策的程度。目前我國的評鑑制度, 是在證券暨期貨交易委員會的督導下, 由中華民國會計師公會全國聯合會, 所設立的會計師查核業務評鑑委員會辦理評鑑事務, 對象是以擁有上市或上櫃公司客戶之中大型會計師事務所進行評鑑, 並沒有擴及全國其他中小型事務所, 而評鑑人員尚包括非會計師身分人員; 相較之下, 美式同業評鑑制度, 其對評鑑小組成員之要求, 除因受評鑑者業務性質特殊需要外界專家外, 皆必須擁有會計師執照, 而且其方式為事務所之間彼此相互評鑑, 範圍更擴及不同規模之會計師事務所。 本文旨在美式同業評鑑制度在台灣實施之研究, 我國會計師事務所從六大變五大之後, 競爭愈演愈烈, 而中小型事務所之業務, 也相互重疊, 確實有必要維持審計品質的一定水準; 實證結果指出, 多數受測會計師同意實施美式同業評鑑制度, 該會計師專業以自律方式管理自己, 來達成提升會計師事務所審計品質之要求。
132 78/1 土木系 郭瑞芳 副教授 會議論文 發佈 專家系統在桁架分析之應用 , [78-1] 摘要:切取分離體( free body diagram )以建立平衡方程式是最基本的力學分析工作。現行電腦分析結構並不直接採用這種方式。為培養學生這種基本觀念,以最簡單的型式的結構一一桁架為對象,配合以專家系統來處理。本文分成三個部份。(一)節點法:切取桁架具有特殊力學意義的節點,其軸力可判定為特定值或其中二軸力具有關係。(二)斷面知識之獲取:在可能出現斷面圖之範圍內,搜尋具有力學特殊意義之斷面圖,建立知識庫之法則。(三) 斷面法:對已知桁架尋找合於知識庫中斷面法則之斷面並展示之,以培養力學平衡觀念。;To find a free body and solve the equilibrium equations are the elementary concepts for structural analysis. However, it's not the method adopted by usual computer procedures. In order to help students get familiar with these concepts, this paper uses the simpliest structure element -truss element- and expert system concept to develop programs for illustration purpose. There are three major parts in these programs: (1) Joint method - Find the members which can be solved immediately or its relations with other members can be identified. (2) Knowledge acquisition for section method - Establish an algorithm to searching through all possible routes for section method. The results can be used to establish rules in knowledge base. (3) Section method - Identify and solve some special trusses by the knowledges obtained by previous two methods.
133 86/1 土木系 王人牧 副教授 會議論文 發佈 隧道支撐設計專家系統之研究 , [86-1] 摘要:在本研究中以岩體分類法為基礎,對隧道之支撐設計考慮CSIR 之RMR經驗設計及NGI 之Q-System 經驗設計,配合理論分析值,進行綜合考慮後,決定最合理之初步支撐設計。 本研究之發展環境為MS Windows 下之Kappa-PC 專家系統發展工具,採用物件導向之方式建構知識庫,並配合法則式的知識表示法,以宣告性的方式描述領域知識,以便於日後知識庫的更新與維護。同時提供選單式及輸入式之圖形介面,以便不同背景的使用者選用,增加系統之實用性。未來更將連接自行開發之台灣地區地質資料庫,以更便捷的方式取得資料來提昇隧道支撐設計之工作效率。;classification method. More reasonable preliminary support design can be decided after overall consideration of the above two methods, along with theoretical analysis. Kappa-PC expert system development tool of MS Windows was used as our development environment. Knowledge Base was constructed in object-oriented format and represented with rules. Domain knowledge was described as declarations. All these help the updating and maintenance of knowledge base. To be more useful, this expert system provides both menu-selection and user-input interfaces for users of different background levels. In a future, a self-developed Taiwan area geology database will be interconnected with this system to increase the work efficiency in doing tunnel-support design in a more convenient way.
134 94/1 土木系 王人牧 副教授 會議論文 發佈 網路虛擬實境VRML/X3D於結構設計之應用 , [94-1] 摘要:電腦軟硬體設備的進步,使得土木工程之結構設計於視覺化的應用越來越容易並且普及,除了傳統以2D 電腦繪圖或靜態的3D 圖形來展示結構元件配置外,現在更進一步的將設計結果形象化,其目的在檢討設計之合理性。本論文是探討如何將網路虛擬實境的技術應用於結構物配筋設計上,藉由參數化程式的設計,讓使用者只需懂得簡單的指令便可於虛擬場景中建構鋼筋元件,讓設計更簡便;本文的另一項研究應用於高層建築耐風設計上。將高層建築風力規範專家系統所得的設計風力與風壓轉換成虛擬的場景,讓使用者自由瀏覽於其中。文中所探討的虛擬實境語言主要有VRML 與X3D 二種。將鋼筋元件設計分別舉出實例應用於VRML 與X3D' 結合JavaScript 的技術來增加虛擬場景的互動性;並利用X3D 使用XML 為標準的特性,設計一個資料來源為XML 格式的輸入檔,轉換資料格式應用於X3D 中,呈現抗風設計的虛擬世界。藉由分離資料與處理程式的設計架構,來分析此無構的優點。;As an organization becomes bigger and highly professional, the tasks are divided into smaller and smaller specialized bits and pieces. Thus, Wind Engineering Research Center (WERC) of Tamkang University proposed an e-collaboration platform to support its research activities and improve its workflows. The e-collaboration platform developed not only inherited the concept of the prior research, but also incorporated a series of knowledge management systems to improve its functionality. The system also took advantage of the new technologies and products to increase its speed and stability. Through deep investigation and human-oriented design, the user interface was made very user-friendly, which makes knowledge sharing easier. Two new functions work scheduling and meeting arrangement, were added to help achieve the goals of collaboration and program integration. The system was developed with maintenance and management in mind, a web administrator should be easy to change, add and maintain the whole system. Even with new developments of research and breakthroughs of information technology, the system has enough capacity to handle the changes. The administrator should be able to change the contents of the platform and meets the future requirements.
135 88/2 土木系 王人牧 副教授 會議論文 發佈 協力式網路工作環境在結構設計之應用 , [88-2] 摘要:協力式網路工作環境是利用協力式設計系統與網路來整合知識庫專家系統與傳統程序性程式之全功能專家系統。典型專家系統利用經驗性的法則知識,以符號推理的方式運作;傳統的結構設計分析程式,利用領域內之深層知識,以程序性的方式運作。在整合知識庫專家系統與傳統程序性程式的過程中常遭遇的問題為兩者作業平台之不同,導致兩者之間的資料交換發生困難。因此本研究內容主要在將協力式設計系統之工作環境延伸至網路上,並發展出一套針對文字檔案資料的處理規格,以達到跨平台整合各個工作站上之多種結構分析軟體與專家系統的功能。重點在跨平台網路介面程式之建立與資料交換物件規格之定義,以充分利用現有之不同結構分析軟體,完成一全功能之協力式設計系統。;The cooperative network workspaces compose a design framework making use of network computing technology to integrate a knowledge-based blackboard system with algorithmic programs on the network. Knowledge-based expert systems are suitable for solving ill-structured problems. Algorithmic programs are best for solving large-scale numerical problems and can assist the analysis in the realm of mechanics. The problems in integrating knowledge-based expert systems with algorithmic programs are usually surrounded by the data exchange difficulties resulted from the differences of their platforms. Therefore, this research aims at developing a networked environment for blackboard-based cooperative structural design and defining a set of specifications for exchanging data between input /output files of the analytic programs and the blackboard.
136 88/2 土木系 王人牧 副教授 會議論文 發佈 大壩安全評估知識庫系統之初步研究 , [88-2] 摘要:台灣地區目前有80餘座水庫,擔負著民生及工業用水、水力發電以及防洪等重要工作。一旦發生事故,不僅影響國計民生,更有可能對人民的生命財產,造成莫大的威脅。因此水庫的安全評估,特別是水庫的主體部份-大壩,其安全評估工作,已成為水利工程之重點工作。一般的大壩安全評估,大多依靠人工檢測及統計分析,不僅耗時,更極端仰賴檢查人員的豐富經驗。因此,導入專家系統,將電腦作為輔助工具,以系統化的方式進行大壩安全評估,成為近年來一個新興的課題。近年來,電腦網路技術發展迅速,特別是網際網路或企業網路的蓬勃發展,已為系統開發之主流架構,然而以往之知識庫系統大多為單機作業,少數昂貴的知識庫系統雖具主從式架構,卻難以真正配合網際網路使用,因此有必要發展一真正具備網際網路架構之知識庫系統。本研究將探討各國應用此技術於大壩安全評估工作之近況,同時針對台灣地區大壩安全評估工作之實務需要,配合財團法人中興工程顧問社現有之「台灣地區水庫資訊系統」,提出一套具網際網路架構之知識庫系統及工作方法。;Reservoirs are important sources for water and hydraulic powersupplies and they also have the function of flood control. There areover eighty reservoirs in Taiwan currently. Failure of thesereservoirs will result in enormous loss of lives and properties in theregion. Therefore, the safety assessment of these reservoirs, inparticular the dams, is of paramount importance to the hydraulicengineering in Taiwan. Unfortunately, such assessment, which isnormally carried out by either visual inspection or statisticalanalysis of the monitoring data, remains time-consuming and to a greatextent relies on the knowledge and expertise of the personnel. Withthe increasing power in computing facilities, systematic approachesthat adopt knowledge-based system (or expert system) techniques arepotential solutions for this problem. Further, the popularity of theInternet has inspired a number of applications porting to suchenvironment. However, most knowledge-based systems only run onstandalone machines. Some expensive systems that are capable ofworking on client/server environment are found difficult to adapt tothe Internet. In this study, we investigate recent advances in thisfield and propose a knowledge-based system for dam safety assessment.This system runs on the Internet and is consistent with the existingdatabase system---"Taiwan reservoir information system" of SinotechEngineering Consultants, Inc.
137 86/1 土木系 王人牧 副教授 會議論文 發佈 建築結構初步設計之案例式輔助系統 , [86-1] 摘要:案例式推理( Case-Based Reasoning )是人類推理思考過程中常用的解題策略,有時又稱為「類比式的推論」,也就是利用先前處理類似情況的經驗來協助解決所面臨的新問題。傳統的專家系統多根據其相關知識領域整理歸納出經驗法則,而以法則式推理進行系統之運作。然對於結構分析設計方面的問題,經驗豐富的工程師常運用其專業知識與從業經驗,根據過去遭遇的問題及其解決的過程,以類比式思考的方式進行結構分析設計的工作,以期達到事倍工半的效果,並避免錯誤的產生,本論文即探討如何將案例式推理之理念應用於結構分析與設計的專家系統中,以增進專家系統在結構工程應用上之效能。;Case-based reasoning is an important problem-solving strategy that humans use frequently. Sometimes called reasoning by analogy, case-based reasoning uses earlier experience of similar situations to help solving new problems. Traditional expert systems act mostly by logical reasoning according to experiential rules induced from domain knowledge. In structural design of buildings, experienced engineers use not only professional knowledge but also analogical cogitation to accomplish design. This kind of analogical design strategy, which is based-on past design cases and their problem-solving processes, can improve the efficiency of design and avoid the occurrence of errors. This paper examines how ideas and techniques from case-based reasoning can be used to aid engineers in the design of building structures.
138 83/1 國企系 黃志文 教授 會議論文 發佈 推薦式廣告與比較性廣告效果之研究 , [83-1] 摘要:本研究主旨在探討推麓式廣告與此較性廣告對溝通效果所造成的影響。本研究以實驗設計將推薦人類型分為名人、專家與一般消費者三種,比較策略分為差異化與關聯性兩種,形成一2 X 3 的因子設計,針對大學生進行問卷調查,然後主要以主成份分析、卡方按定、變異數分析等研究方法進行分析探討,結果發現: (1)在廣告認知、廣告情感、廣告意願與產品整體態度上,名人推薦均有最佳的效果;在屬性記億上則以專家推薦的效果最佳 (2) 在產品整體態度上,差異化比較的效果顯著優於關聯性出較的效果。 (3) 唯有在名人推駕下,差異化比較的廣告情感才明額比關聯性比較為佳。
139 90/2 資圖系 邱炯友 教授 會議論文 發佈 學術期刊同儕評閱電子化之探討─以ESPERE為例 , [90-2] 摘要:十七世紀中旬,學術期刊開始出版,為了維護期刊出版品質,須建立一套審核制度來審格作品內容,以決定該作品出版與否。1752 年開始,建立一套評審(Refereeing)辦法,由一群專家進行評審,籍以掌握內容品質,但一直到二十世紀中下葉,同儕評閱才其有標準形式。 二十一世紀在科技的推波助瀾之下,對學術期刊而言,造成一種出版形式土的革命,除了傳統紙本型式之外,電子出版品陸續出現,電子出版品的快速成長,使得傳統編輯制度產生變化,而其中的同儕評閱制度也面臨改變。為了改善傳統同儕評閱制度的缺點及符合電子出版的潮流,哈登(Steven Harnad)在1993 年在國際電子期刊會議上發表其看法,他強調電子化的評閱制度,不僅可解決傳統同儕評閱制度之缺失,還可建立一公平、客觀,具效率、具互動式的出版模式。 雖然電子化同儕評閱制度雖可解決傳統同儕評閱制度的缺失,但在電子化同儕評閱環境中,目前仍有些問題有待進一步解決,其問題包括了妒:設計全新電子化同儕評閱系統時,其色含的系統功能項目為何?在網路環境中,如何進行保護與維護?這些問題必須有賴進一步解決, 並加以規範及管理,如此才能真正建立一套完整的電子化同儕評閱制度,以發揮其功效。故本文由目前傳統同儕評閱制度無構,進而描述傳統與電子化同儕評閱制度,其過程及特色之差異,並一電子化同儕評閱管理系統一-ESPERE 系統作為了解。;To maintain quality of academic journals, started to publishing in the middle of the seventeenth century, a system of examining content of papers was necessary, and the peer reviewing concept and system were gradually establishing until the late period of twentieth century. The development of science and technology in the twenty-first century had made a revolution of publishing form academic journals. Except of the conventional paper journals, electronic journals have been swiftly emerged and caused the changes of conventional editorial and peer reviewing systems The paper of ""implementing Peer Review on the InterNet, ""written by Steven Harnad and publ ished on the internationals conference on Referred Electronic Journal in 1993, has explored the importance of electronic peer reviewing system. The development of electronic peer reviewing system not only can sort the drawbacks of conventional system out, but also can promote and establish an efficient, just ice, and objective interactive publ ishing form. There are some concepts and problems have to be clarified for peer reviewing system, although electronic systems owned lots of advantages. For example, what functions have to be involved in designing a new electronic peer reviewing system?How to effecti vely protect and manage in the Internet environments? Such these problems have to be solved and managed, and the electronic peer reviewing systems as Steven Harnad said could be establ ished. Therefore, in this paper, the current conventional peer reviewing system is stated and the similarities and dissimilarities between conventional and electronic peer reviewing systems are discussed. As example by ESPERE was also proposed to demonstrate the current situation of the electronic peer reviewing system.
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