||Natural and bioactive products have been of great interest due to their benefit as
health foods and drugs to prevent various diseases. The aim of this study is to efficiently reuse
marine chitinous materials (CMs), abundant and low-cost fishery by-products, for the bio-synthesis,
isolation, and identification of antioxidant compounds possessing some other beneficial bioactivities.
Paenibacillus sp. was used to convert CMs to antioxidants. Among various tested CMs, squid pen
powder (SPP) gave the best results when used as the sole carbon/nitrogen source. Fermented
SPP (FSPP) had comparable antioxidant activity (IC50 = 124 µg/mL) to that of α-tocopherol
(IC50 = 30 µg/mL). The antioxidant productivity increased 1.83-fold after culture optimization.
The use of multiple techniques, including Diaion, silica, and preparative HPLC columns coupled with
a bioassay resulted in the isolation of two major antioxidants characterized as exopolysaccharides
and homogentisic acid. These isolated compounds showed great maximum activity and low
IC50 values (96%, 30 µg/mL and 99%, 5.4 µg/mL, respectively) which were comparable to that
of α-tocopherol (95%, 24 µg/mL). The crude sample, fractions, and isolated compounds also
demonstrated α-glucosidase inhibition and anti–inflammatory activity. Notably, homogentisic
acid was found as a non-sugar-based moiety α-glucosidase inhibitor which show much higher
inhibition (IC50 = 215 µg/mL) than that of acarbose (IC50 = 1324 µg/mL) and also possessed
acceptable anti–inflammatory activity (IC50 = 9.8 µg/mL). The results highlighted the value of
using seafood processing by-products, like squid pens, for the production of several compounds
possessing multi-benefit bioactivities and no cytotoxicity.